foreword 2 clear sky dear readers and valued customers, mankiewicz has been active in the aviation sector for over 40 years and has offered complete paint systems for cabin interior, structural parts and aircraft exterior. back in 2006 our idea to revolutionize the aviation exterior coatings market was born. by listening to our customers we were able to develop a completely new paint system to replace the long-proven h/s topcoat. we are very proud to present you the first issue of the mankiewicz aviation customer magazine “clearsky“. numerous aircraft have been painted since then – all of them giving proof to our successful concept. we are very happy that our valued customers have shared several inside stories with us and with you. it is always a pleasure for us to see shiny aircraft, one more beautiful than the next, painted with mankiewicz basecoat/clearcoat. a clear sky reveals the full gloss and color depth of each unique livery design; it ensures a safe flight and clear views. our “clearsky magazine“ is meant to give you clear views as well: we hope that the airlines’ in-service reports will aid you in your everyday work and act as a stimulant for changes. you are always welcome to visit our central research & development centre as well as our production sites in germany, us and china. last but not least, we hope you enjoy reading the maga- zine and wish you always have a clear sky! andreas ossenkopf dear readers, for more than a century now mankiewicz stands for customer satisfaction and customer orientation. already in 1895 mankiewicz set the standard for paint with its innovative nitrocellulose-based coach paint. we have stopped producing coach paint long ago – nowa- days our paints enhance innumerable industrial goods, produced by well-known oems in numerous market segments. the slogan “coating concept of the future” is intrinsic to all our operations. until today we have kept the leading role: we have developed our business in the areas of high-tech paints for the general industry, automotive and aviation markets with a comprehensive know-how, a competitive edge and outstanding quality standards. for more than 40 years we have been closely linked to the aviation industry and happy to supply you, our valued customers, with our products. enjoy reading the reports of experiences coming from various airlines, be a part of our steadily growing satisfied clientele and participate in our coating concepts of the future. please get in touch with us and we will be happy to share our idea of quality and sustainability with you! michael o. grau strong productsstrong partners andreas ossenkopf, director – head of aviation, mankiewicz gebr. & co. (gmbh & co. kg) michael o. grau, chief executive officer (ceo), mankiewicz gebr. & co. (gmbh & co. kg)
iberia: fade of colors? dull finishes? no more worries! qantas: after 8 years in-service all the boxes ticked – basecoat / clearcoat has proven itself! dhl: yellow is a difficult color?! with basecoat / clearcoat not! easyjet: take it easy! content clear sky 3 content foreword strong partners – strong products 2 latest news new qualification 4 what’s new? 4 shark in the sky – made possible by mankiewicz functional coatings 5 behind the scenes facing new challenges of chemicals legislation 10 how paint can reduce your carbon footprint 11 kaleidoscope skies – more than just colorful and glossy 14 customer reports qantas: after 8 years in-service all the boxes ticked – basecoat / cleacoat has proven itself! 6 klm: frontrunners setting new boundaries 8 westjet: it’s magic! 12 iberia: fade of colors? dull finishes? no more worries! 16 dhl: yellow is a difficult color?! with basecoat / cleacoat not! 18 etihad: a shining star in the middle of the desert 22 easyjet: take it easy! 24 etihad:a shining star in the middle of the desert klm: frontrunners setting new boundaries westjet: it’s magic! sun vs. paint and the winner is: basecoat / cleacoat 20 overcoming the composite challenge 26
4 clear sky latest news italy’s flag carrier alitalia has introduced a new- promotional logo jet for the new italian-built jeep renegade und mankiewicz is proud to be the paint supplier for this aircraft. mankiewicz alrea- dy supplied the paint for two other special liveries: the expo and calabria liveries. for more than 86 years the belgian comic “tin- tin” has made children happy and inspired artists like steven spielberg and andy warhol. now belgium’s flag carrier brussels airlines has dedica- ted a whole aircraft to tintin. it took only 10 days and 20 color shades to bring the adventurer and his dog in a shark to life. mankiewicz and china eastern airlines have suc- cessfully cooperated in the painting of numerous aircraft. the basecoat / clearcoat system was also used for painting the unique peacock yunann livery. peacocks are magnificent birds with multi- colored stunning tail feathers - simply cut out for illustration with bc / cc! what’s new? mankiewicz, having been qualified in the interior and structural parts sectors for many years, now also had its basecoat / clearcoat system successfully specified by embraer according to mep 10-125. consequently, mankiewicz can now offer the full paint package to airlines with an embraer fleet. and the great thing about it: airlines can now use the mankiewicz basecoat / clearcoat system for refurbishment of their embraer fleet as well! new qualification alitalia jeep renegade brussels tintin china eastern peacock
first the mankiewicz clearcoat is transpa- rent and may be used in combination with all customized colour shades second the microstructured paint is ap- plied by means of a silicone sheet bearing a negative of the riblet’s structure clear sky 5 latest news the aviation industry is always interes- ted in saving weight and, consequently, fuel. for decades now, the mankiewicz coatings for the aircraft interior and exterior as well as structural parts have done their share, always in compliance with the customers’ demands. thus, it came as no surprise when aircraft manu- facturer airbus selected mankiewicz as a partner for the development of a highly functional sharkskin paint. learn from nature sharks are successful hunters, because they chase their prey very quickly. one thing that makes them so fast is their spe- cial skin which consists of many riblets. riblets are microscopic (in the μm range) longitudinal ribs on the scales optimizing sharks’ flow behavior. the riblets impede turbulences transverse to water’s flow di- rection, thus minimizing resistance. while aircraft have nothing to do with water flow, they have a lot to do with air currents. the difficulty of the long-term trial car- ried out within the frame of eu research project “clean sky” was to transfer known biological structures into technical pro- cesses and, finally, paint. in the research project “multifunctional coatings”, which started in summer 2011 mankiewicz, airbus, lufthansa and the fraunhofer institut für fertigungstechnik und ange- wandte materialforschung (ifam) have entered a cooperation to study resistance of these surfaces under real conditions, i.e. during air-traffic. as such two conven- tional aircraft specified areas were coated with the new paint system. the obtained results were to show the resistance of new structures under regular air-traffic conditions (e.g. environmental impact). also, it was to be established whether the lifespan was economically sufficient. the solution: a microstructured paint film for this, mankiewicz developed a spe- cific uv-curing paint system with a very small volatile solvent content complying with the aviation industry’s strict require- ments. moreover, the new paint system is dirt-repellent, uv-stable and extremely resistant to abrasions and erosions. a new method was developed for application of the microstructure paint: the microstructure is minutely transferred onto the paint by “simultaneous stamping and curing”. as with negative printing, the paint is applied by means of a silicon sheet carrying a negative of the riblet’s structure and uv-cured immediately. subsequently, the silicon sheet is removed. the results of the ongoing tests were very promising, so much so that the project partners have decided to continue. now that the paint complies with all require- ments, the biggest challenge is how to coat something as huge and complex as an airplane. mankiewicz’s technological lead the final goal is an accurate, fast and efficient process allowing the painting of the entire aircraft. current results show that a fuel reduction of a little more than one per cent may be possible. this would be another technological lead for mankiewicz as well as an ecological benefit for our customers. shark in the sky – made possible by mankiewicz functional coatings further development of the functional basecoat / clearcoat fulfills airbus’ wish for a highly functional aircraft shark skin.
6 clear sky customer reports qantas: after in-service basecoat / clearcoat has proven itself! 8 years8 years initial situation / evaluation requirements results fleet change from boeing to mixed fleet + a380 revised brand and external livery launch across fleet early loss of gloss on current fleet with traditional topcoats need to touch-up, repair and refurbish current paint system to maintain brand integrity long term protection of pigments and vibrancy of qantas red improved appearance and cleanability with a view to extension of cleaning intervals avoid polishing and touch-up between maintenance cycles and prolong required or planned maintenance cycles system including a clearcoat for gloss retention but without the additional associated weight of an additional coat constant monitoring for more than eight years has shown excellent color and gloss retention across the fleet potential to extend paint intervals with reduced in-service maintenance base maintenance has observed that the system demonstrated an improved cleanability with potential for cleaning interval extension
clear sky 7 qantas is operating the oldest basecoat / clearcoat aircraft and confirms extended longevity, faster application, reduced material usage and emissions. all the boxes ticked – “the decision made in 2007 to trial and monitor a new-generation paint system across our fleet has, and continues to, prove itself in terms of longevity and gloss retention. the improved surface finish properties have also led to reduced cleaning and maintenance requirements and an exterior presentation befitting our operational heritage” alan milne – head of qantas engineering, international white fuse bc/cc red on fin bc/cc conventional system 2007 95 85 75 65 55 45 2010 2012 2013 2014 gloss stability basecoat / clearcoat 2010201220132014
8 clear sky customer reports being aware of our role model position and located in a densely populated area, the envi- ronmental awareness has always kept generations of klm engineers busy to reduce klm’s environmental footprint. klm can be seen as one of the most acti- ve airlines who are demanding and cooperating with the oem’s in the industry to come up with innovative products. klm engineering & maintenance’s (klm e&m) long history with chromate free paint-systems started in 1996 and we were one of the initiators of the ams3095 specification which made the use of complete chromate free systems possible in the industry. klm e&m is the launching cus- tomer of the mankiewicz chromate free bc / cc paint scheme in the refurbishment market. the first boeing 747 was painted in february 2008 and by now more than 100 klm aircraft are painted with this system. furthermore klm e&m also painted many third party customers with the same mankiewicz cf-bc / cc system. klm: frontrunners setting new boundaries being one of the world’s oldest operating airlines royal dutch airlines (klm) has always been one of the frontrunners in setting new boundaries in the aviation industry. a recent example of this environmental awareness is the introduction of a complete chromate free mankiewicz high solids basecoat / clearcoat (bc / cc) paint system for almost our entire fleet. by heiko cramer & rene van den hof, klm
highly sophisticated paint facilities clear sky 9 klm e&m ‘baptised’ the system into ‘the sustainable green paint system’. these days we are using our advanced knowledge about this system to market and convince our customers of the benefits this system could bring them. time to catch up: after using the mankiewicz bc / cc system for almost eight years it is time to catch-up with heiko cramer and rené van den hof to hear whether the system brought what they were expecting from it. heiko cramer is aircraft painting production manager at klm e&m. being responsible for the paint shop, his first interest is to run the paint shop commercially and econo- mically. according to heiko the biggest improvement for e&m is the reduction of the turn around time (tat) that is realised by the introduction of the system. besides, less labour, paint and masking materials are needed because the repainting process is leaner. and last but not least, the general look of the klm fleet has significantly improved, especially the fading of the klm blue, which results in a nice wet glossy look. rené van den hof is the responsible materials and pro- cess engineer at klm e&m. according to rené their cpcp (corrosion prevention and control program) shows no significant problems to report, which proves that the chrome free system can withstand the tough re- quirements of the industry. klm is now at a stage that their boeing 747s require a corrosion inspection. therefore their ‘sustainable green paint system’ was successfully stripped from the fuse- lage. the concern that an aged bc / cc system would be harder to strip seems unjustified, several boeing 747s have been stripped so far and re-painted with the same system without delays. the next goal is to extend the life- cycle of the paint scheme up to eight years, or if possible, even longer. for that reason klm is inspecting its fleet on a regular basis. the results so far are looking good; the bc / cc system has already proven to be more sustainable than the conventional systems. facts and figures about klm and bc / cc launch customer of bc / cc in 2008 more than 100 klm aircraft painted around the globe successful strip of a chrome free bc / cc after a maintenance cycle proven long-term corrosion protection with chrome free system turn-around-times significantly reduced repaint cycles prolonged
10 clear sky behind the scenes as a formulator of paints mankiewicz takes the role of a downstream user without own registration obligations which also applies for mankiewicz’ customers. however, as a consequence of the registration of substances by the suppliers, the available information on paint ingredients has increased significantly. safety data sheets on substances have become far more extensive, but by far not all of the information provided is relevant for each application and communication further down the supply chain. the chal- lenge is actually to refine the information in a way that it can really support the health, safety and environmental ma- nagement at the paint manufacturing site as well as during aircraft applications. especially in the aviation industry the very long product qualification and implementation time as well as the high quality standards require long term planning and availability of products with a specific composition. while substitution of substances of very high concern is actually the objective of the legislators, replacing of certain hazardous substances with specific functions like anti-corrosion or high reactivity takes much more time than in other industries. not only in these cases the safe handling and use of the chemicals becomes the first priority, which calls for refined information and tailored documentation. to put it in a nutshell reach does not affect the products mankiewicz is supplying you with very much as we are con- stantly developing more environmentally friendly products anyhow. there is only one product group affected which is the chromates. as there is no real alternative available for the protection of structural parts yet, a consortium of paint manufacturers including mankiewicz, oems and applicators are currently authorizing this particular chemical element and are positive that chromates and therewith current primers can also be used after the sunset date. “reach” stands for “registration, eva- luation, authorization and restriction of chemicals” and its implementation also sets requirements for the production, supply and application of paints in the aviation industry. learn more about the influence of reach on your business. the story of klm and mankiewicz proves that environmental friendliness and exte- rior paints go well together. mankiewicz takes active responsibility for the environment and sustainability and does everything to support its customers in this regard. facing new challenges of chemicals legislation green, greener, mankiewicz
clear sky 11 behind the scenes sourcing of raw materials mankiewicz pays special attention to the selection of its suppliers and is in favour of procuring raw materials from iso 14001 certified suppliers whenever possible. mankiewicz audits its suppliers’ processes and cooperates with them on new, more environmentally friendly raw materials. production and distribution of paint we are committed to the development of eco-friendly water-dilutable paints which have equally high quality as the conventi- onal ones. this also includes a constant reduction of volatile organic compounds in our paints. mankiewicz is also committed to the elimination of chromates and offers ams3095 certified chrome-free solutions. all production and distribution processes are regularly checked regarding their sustainability. processing of paint use of chrome-free water-dilutable paints helps protecting the health and safety of the workforce at mros and paint facili- ties. additionally, the reduction of voc emissions lessens the risk of fire and explosion; and significantly reduces en- vironmental pollution. overall we offer production of paint that considerably im- proves and shortens paint processes as well as contributing to sustainability. so does the use of less paint due to lower film thicknesses or – as in the case of the basecoat / clearcoat – being able to ap- ply fewer paint layers. shortened drying times are another major factor. however, the mankiewicz paint does not only help save emissions at mros: the airlines’ eco-balance will notably profit from exten- ding times between cleaning cycles and outstandingly durable paint surfaces. mankiewicz can show you many ways to help reduce the carbon footprint of airlines, mros and oems. please get in touch with us to learn more. climate change caused by the greenhouse effect is discussed by the public. although it is unclear how to stop climate change, we will have to try and reduce co2 emissions in order to keep the change to a minimum. how paint can reduce your carbon footprint iso 14001 is a standard related to environmental management that exists to help organizations minimize the extent to which their operations negatively affect the environment, comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and continually improve in the above. iso 14001 certifications are performed by third-party organizations. the iso 14001 standard represents the core set of standards used by organizations for designing and implementing an effective environmental management system (ems) and contains a continual improvement process. about iso 14001
watch the video painting the magic plane customer reports 12 clear sky canadian airline westjet decided for basecoat / clearcoat from mankiewicz in 2011. dave robertson, heavy maintenance manager, reports about magic moments: by dave robertson, westjet westjet: it’s magic!
clear sky 13 paint extremely durable. a further plus factor is the perfect application and repair ability of the paint. the thing that we like most about painting with mankiewicz products is the level of service that you get from the company. the hands on technical support has got to be the best in the industry and every level of contact within the company is collaborative and very easy to deal with. as the magic plane project came on the table there was no doubt which paint system to use. the base/clearcoat product has been superior and has exceeded our expec- tations in every way. since switching to this paint we have been very happy with the application and durability of the paint of the more than 30 aircraft painted so far. we found that we were not getting the longevity from topcoats. it was becoming dull and it did not adhere to the aircraft very well. we find that base- coat / clearcoat stands up better over time and that we have no issues with the paint remaining on the aircraft. the gloss of the paint and general appearance over time is excellent. the aircraft that were painted first and have been in service for a couple of years still look just as fresh as the aircraft that are newly painted. overall we find the facts and figures about the magic plane gloss: ø 94 gu at 60 ° full hide at one layer per color only immense time saving (25 % faster than scheduled) 36 color shades (partly achieved by blending and fading) paint instead of decals because of superior longevity wild spraying technique used
14 clear sky what is color? what is “color”? for most people colors are a natural part of everyday life. but why and how can we see colors? dogs and cats cannot and yet they still manage to find their way around in the world. goldfish, however, have a wider spectrum of color vision than human beings. our ability to discern colors provides many advantages which had helped our evolutiona- ry ancestors survive in the wild and also makes orientation in modern civilization easier and safer for us. as with all sensory impressions, each person “experiences” color differently. this is not just because no two eyes are identical, but also because color interpretation varies from person to person and is dependent on numerous factors. the same person can even perceive colors differently at various times, and also depending on the mood he or she is in. the brain (not the eyes) creates the color firstly, it has to be stated that the human eye has no out- standing physical or optical characteristics. the image of the environment projected onto the retina is not of a particularly good quality: outlines and colors are distorted, blurred and the whole image is upside down. it is the brain which recon- structs the information the eyes get by means of biochemical processes into an image of our environment that we are used to and that we can move around in safely. this also means that the colored image we perceive is created with the aid of our accumulated knowledge, experience, interests and, last but not least, our current mood and mental state. it explains that two people “seeing” the same thing at the same time will very likely perceive it differently. no color without light it takes light to see colors. absorption or reflection of long- wave light gives objects the color we perceive with our eyes. essentially, the color impression is created by the object surfaces ability to reflect certain fractions of light more strongly than others. for example, water seems blue to us, because the red, yellow and green parts of the sunlight are absorbed very quickly while the blue part is reflected most. change of color or wavelength of the light (e.g. by use of a filter) will also change the color of the illuminated object. for example, a red apple will appear black in green light. there- fore also the color impression of an aircraft inside a hangar may be very different than in broad daylight. the basecoat / clearcoat system is available in an extremely wide range of colors and effects – customized for each in- dividual customer. but what is color actually? how is it measured and what influences our perception of it? 80 % think color increases brand recognition 84,7 % of consumers cite color as the primary reason they buy a particular product color can improve comprehension learning reading 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
clear sky 15 what is color? factors influencing color perception with regard to aircraft paints light plays an unquestionable role in color perception. how- ever, there are numerous other influential factors: for example, effect pigments like metallics and micas can significantly change the color impression of an aircraft. gloss also plays a significant part. airplanes painted with basecoat / clearcoat keep their high gloss throughout a complete maintenance cycle. colors appear vibrant, thus preserving the important corporate brand value – contrary to conventional paints whose gloss decreases significantly over time. the more matte the paint finish the paler the color will appear. hiding power is another important factor for paint’s color impression. as such the basecoat, being optimally pigmented, is ideal for obtaining rich colors. how can color be defined? as color is not an object’s physical property, but solely a sen- sory perception, the question is how to standardize the human perception of color by means of the light source, the object and the viewer in order to compare sensory perceptions. to define a color three factors are used: color shade, saturation and light- ness. by means of these values each color can be catalogued. in order to correctly communicate color shades to our customers (“pale grey” is not a very clear specification) we need auxiliary media such as color systems. aircraft paint systems are normally depicted by means of the cie-lab system. with three color values l* (lightness), a* (red-green axis) and b* (yellow- blue axis) color shades can be clearly defined. supplementary values are c* (chroma / saturation) and h (hue / shade). at mankiewicz an entire department (colorimetry) professionaly deals with this issue. mankiewicz has the goal of supplying the customers with products of consistent color and appearance, keeping deviations from the standard to a minimum. to estab- lish color differences between two samples, the color coordinates of the standard and the color in question are noted in a color space. the total color difference is illustrated in unit de* (delta e). at mankiewicz, this is not only done with new matched colors, but prior to each paint dispatch to a customer to ensure that the aircraft’s appearance always complies with the airline’s corporate color and the high demands of the aviation industry. image in the brain retina light/dark sensitive rods color sensitive cones for red, blue and green color perception in the eye this plane is orange no, it’s pink subjective color perception red is strength orange is confidence green is balance grey is growth blue is trust yellow is optimism
brillant colors – no fading 16 clear sky customer reports facts and figures about iberia and bc / cc decrease of material consumption one basecoat and one clearcoat layer only very high gloss easy repair concept “wild spraying” technique helps to reduce consumables and makes processes more efficient
clear sky 17 iberia has experienced massive fading of the so called “warm” colors in the spanish heat in the past. and so it is of no surprise that the key advantage of the mankiewicz bc / cc system from the iberia engineering point of view is the longevity and the impressive gloss of the paint system pionee- red by mankiewicz. a further benefit not to forget are the good orange peel values, which makes our livery really shine now and, at the same time keep the impeccable results over years. due to the high uv impact in our region we needed to apply clearcoat already for a long time on top of the conventional paint already used in the past. due to this fact we were pioneers in the clearcoat application on top of the deep shades of our livery already in order to get rid of this issue. thanks to the mankiewicz bc / cc-system we have found a global perfect solution for the whole air- craft, which pays off even for a rather simple livery like iberia’s. we are currently monitoring the aircraft painted and are very satisfied with the performance of the system. we are also aware that our two year’s experience must be contrasted with the results shown by the manufacturer and the aircraft monitoring. from the paint shops point of view we are also delighted with the systems’ performance and thanks to the technical support provided by the mankiewicz staff we are already experts in the bc / cc way of spraying. this fact is proven by the good sprayability of the coating system together with the great experience of our paint shop team. iberia maintenance had applied the clearcoat solution on top of high solids coating for years, but the fact of having built the full coating scheme from bottom to top with a complete system like the mankiewicz base- coat / clearcoat really improves the concept. from the process point of view, we are able to save one layer of white and also one layer of each other color since the bc / cc has been designed with good hiding power. as a consequence, there is a lower material consumption and a better final result with regards to gloss (96, 97, 98 gu @60°), dry film thickness (165 microns average on stripped aircraft) and orange peel (t value 14 average). it is particularly remarkable that the clearcoat can be ap- plied in one layer only. in addition, the clearcoat is much easier to polish than conventional high solid topcoats. regarding the day to day maintenance, the easy repair of damaged parts is also an advantage. the repair system is much better than that of former schemes. the repair allows you to fade out the color until the repair is almost invisible to the eyes of a passenger. the drying time of the system is good enough to achieve a worthy paint job. iberia: fade of colors? dull finishes? no more worries! spains’ flag carrier iberia speaks about good reasons for their change to basecoat / clearcoat. by javier dueñas del cerro, iberia and vicente rodríguez sardón, iberia
color protection 18 clear sky customer reports dhl: yellow is a difficult color?! with basecoat / clearcoat not! dhl bahrain reports about bright colors and weight savings. by steve o’shea, dhl bahrain
clear sky 19 the dhl brand is immediately recognisable with our distinct yellow and red exterior livery design; however, these two colors are more suscepti- ble to uv degradation than other colors such as white and grey. the previous high solid system we specified just couldn’t cope with the extreme weather conditions experienced here in bahrain. premature loss of gloss and color fade was quite normal for this old coatings technology. as the dhl image is of the utmost importance, this just wasn’t acceptable. when we first met with mankiewicz and listened to the features and benefits of their basecoat / clearcoat system, with the promise of long term gloss and color protection we were of course very interested. in addition to this there were also promises of faster turnaround times, less material usage and reduction of emissions not only during the painting, but also from less fuel burn due to weight reduction. with such promises from the leading supplier of this technology we felt it prudent to try. when the newly painted aircraft arrived back in bahrain we could immediately see the high gloss ‘wet look’ appearance we were promised from the clearcoat. during the painting we noticed a considerable reduction in paint materials and the fewer layers and faster drying times also saved downtime. so, all the promises of savings during the painting had been realised, but what about the in-service performance. well it’s only been three years, but the gloss has remained the same and the colors are not fading. all the indications are that we will keep our high gloss and color protection for some years to come. facts and figures about dhl and bc/cc faster application times reduction of materials reduction of emissions fewer layers less weight outstanding gloss
20 clear sky behind the scenes the sun emits light at all wavelengths, including energy-rich ultraviolet light: sunlight in the stratosphere is composed of about 50 % infrared light, 40 % visible light and 10 % ultra- violet light. however, at ground level the sunlight consists of 44 % visible light and 3 % ultraviolet light; the rest is infrared. this means that the earths atmosphere blocks approximate- ly 77 % of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. of the ultraviolet radiation that does reach the surface of the earth, more than 95 % has the longer uva wavelengths, with a small quantity of uvb radiation. the part of uvb radiation which remains in ultraviolet light after passing through the earth atmosphere mostly depends on clouds and atmospheric conditions. the energy-rich uvc bands produced by the sun are responsible for the generation of the ozone layer as this radiation has enough energy to crack oxygen molecules (o2 ) to form ozone (o3 ). the ozone layer itself further blocks and therefore reduces the fraction of uvb radiation on the ground. uv and aircraft paints aircraft fly above the uv-blocking cloud and smog layers, where the fraction of ultraviolet light is higher than on earth. as a matter of fact unprotected human skin at that altitude would immediately suffer from skin cancer. having such an effect on biological systems it also poses a challenge for technical systems like paint. speaking of paint this means a serious attack on the aircraft’s coated surface resulting in the degradation of chemical bonds. the most obvious part of this degradation is loss of gloss and subsequent fading of colors. ultraviolet light attacks the paint’s top layer and roughens the surface. this rough surface scatters the light letting the surface appear more and more matte over time. a matte surface always makes colors seem less vibrant. also, the paint’s outer film does not properly protect the pigments anymore which will lead to a gradual fading of the color over time. in-depth knowledge is necessary to understand the chemical reaction caused by uv radiation. the optimization of paint formulations with regard to this is very complex. in addition to this knowledge mankiewicz uses state-of-the-art equipment for testing the paint systems and generating reproducible and reliable results. testing and anticipating the influence of uv radiation on paint the effects of ultraviolet radiation only occur after a long exposure. however, it is necessary to get results in advance to speed up the paint development process. state-of-the-art equipment is used at mankiewicz to simulate possible im- pacts on aircraft paint: (a) high uv impact during air operation and (b) high temperatures and uv radiation on the ground. in both cases water is needed to obtain an accelerated reaction with visible changes on painted surfaces. measuring is done by means of quv (uv fluorescent) and weather- ometer (xenon arc) weathering. the quv weathering tester for instance reproduces the damage caused by intense un- filtered sunlight, rain and elevated temperature. both weath- ering methods are standardized worldwide: iso 16747-3 for uv weathering (formerly iso 11507) and iso 16474-2 for xenon weathering (formerly iso 11341). basecoat / clearcoat – the perfect uv shield the mankiewicz basecoat / clearcoat system was developed to withstand strong uv exposure during flight and on the ground. the clearcoat protects the pigments used in the basecoat from fading because its smooth surface perfectly reflects a high fraction of the ultraviolet radiation. however we love and appreciate the sun’s energy we should not underestimate its risks. while people use sunscreen to pro- tect their skin, airlines should use bc / cc to protect the "skin" of their aircraft. sun vs. paint
clear sky 21 behind the scenes the remaining ultraviolet light gets absorbed in the clearcoat and transferred to harmless thermal energy. the clearcoat’s shielding properties are in correlation with its dry film thick- ness. the mankiewicz clearcoat has been specifically developed to either reflect or absorb more than 98 % of the destructive uv-b radiation already at a dry film thickness of only 40 μm. consequently, the pigments stay intact and the wet-look remains for a full maintenance cycle. there is no need to re-paint the aircraft before the end of a maintenance cycle anymore because of an unaesthetic appearance. long-term monitoring tests (eight years) of color and gloss of the mankiewicz bc / cc system in service have proven that gloss and color remain nearly the same as when measured right after the initial application – it will reliably protect your corporate image for the aircraft’s entire lifetime. ozone layer air pollution clouds uv radiation uv radiation uv radiation aircraft fly above the uv-blocking cloud and smog layers, where the fraction of ultraviolet light is higher than on earth uv and aircraft paints
the residence by etihad cabin onboard the airline’s new airbus a380 22 clear sky customer reports etihad: a shining star in etihad and alitalia are the official glo- bal airline carriers of expo milan 2015. in support of the event, an airbus a330 from etihad airways and an a330 from alitalia were both painted in the stunning expo 2015 livery design. both aircraft were painted simultaneously in abu dhabi and rome. the mankiewicz basecoat / clearcoat system was se- lected for both applications which offer the fastest pos- sible process times, especially where multi-color liveries are concerned. the paint facilities were able to apply 12 colours in less than 24 hours and the aircraft were finally protected with a high gloss uv protecting clearcoat to show expo 2015 in all its glory.
clear sky 23 etihad airways the middle of the desert flying in seventh heaven stepping onto the a380 is more like arriving at a glamorous hotel than a plane. even the galley is like an elegant reception with chocolate brown and champagne decor. both their flagship a380 and b787 design programmes represent the single-biggest commitment to cabin interior product design made by any airline in the world. in close cooperation with mankiewicz the new interiors have been designed by a british consortium of design compa- nies all of them longtime partners working with mankiewicz as the innovative leader of special design effect coatings. a high number of sophisticated metallic paint systems and water dilutable basecoats in sandy beige and golden shades were selected to create an unique and visually ap- pealing interior reflecting the topography of abu dhabi. mankiewicz is the market leader in fst cabin interior coatings since more than 40 years.
mr. andreas ossenkopf, head of aviation at mankiewicz who provide the coatings for the aircraft commented: “mankiewicz is very proud to be the chosen coatings supplier to easyjet. we take great pride in the manufacture and supply of the most high quality and innovative aerospace coatings. easyjet and mankiewicz have the same philosophy to combine quality with efficiency and we are delighted to support the high quality image of easyjet.” 24 clear sky customer reports easyjet: take it easy! easyjet and mankiewicz have proven that aircraft exterior painting cannot be easier than with basecoat / clearcoat.
clear sky 25 facts and figures about easyjet and bc/cc in excess of hundred aircraft successfully painted monitoring program for gloss and color in place since 2010 with most satisfactory results weight savings empirically measured and confirmed vibrant orange with one single coat only
26 clear sky behind the scenes composites are different materials combined to obtain ano- ther material with enhanced performance values. in aviation, fibres (reinforcements) are combined with resins (matrix) in a mould which guarantees the desired shape. pressure and temperature applied during the curing process result in a stable component with better performance values and less weight than aluminium. nowadays, various fabrication me- thods are available (pressure bag, autoclave moulding, etc.), aiming at automated production processes. composites are a reality in today’s aerospace industry. as a matter of fact, current state of the art aircraft already include more than 50 % structural components made of composite. special coatings for composite structural components the use of composite structural components requires special coating materials. specific manufacturing processes as well as the characteristics of the material itself make composite components different from aluminium ones. the manufac- turing processes are not yet as fully developed as those for metal parts; this frequently results in surface defects. thus, quick detection of these defects is essential for easy (and cost efficient) remedy. as these surfaces will later be painted with exterior coatings, proper surface preparation is mandatory. use of a glossy primer to make defects visible until now, the painting process for cfrp has not offered enough reliability when considering detection of surface de- fects. the process ”filler-structural primer-exterior primer- exterior decorative system“ will likely result in late detection of defects, either between application steps or even at the far end of the process. repair of these defects at a later stage is always time-consuming and costly, also most of the time results in an increase of the aircraft’s total weight. mankiewicz wanted to overcome this problem by making defects visible at the very beginning of the coating process. use of a glossy primer allows easier, more effective detection of the defect; only one layer of glossy primer reveals almost all hidden defects. and what’s more, there is no extra weight. improve customers processes mankiewicz always aims to benefit the customer. the glossy primer is an additional result of technical development and multidisciplinary efforts that help customers improve their processes. overcoming the composite challenge composites in aircraft are smart substrates and the future of aviation – but how is their impact on structural and exterior paints and aircraft painting in general? learn more about how to cope with composites and paint.
with these two products invisible fast repairs are simple and safe. both thinners and all repair methods are oem approved and have already proven their effectiveness in-service. so whether you need big or small repairs, re- gardless of the colors, now it’s easy and very fast. your advantages at a glance: • faster repairs – shortened cycle times and cost savings • secure processes – reliable results - invisible repairs • easy-to-use - full documentation and technical support available • after repair work significantly reduced (i.e. polishing) please contact us if you would like to learn more about our revolutionary basecoat / clearcoat repair techniques. simple safe smart alexit® repair thinneralexit® fade-out thinner basecoat/clearcoat smart repairsmankiewicz revolutionised the aircraft exterior coatings market with the introduction of our basecoat/ clearcoat system back in 2007. now mankiewicz has revolutionized the basecoat/clearcoat repair pro- cess. rectification of surface defects is now even easier than ever before! by listening to our customers’ needs we have developed these outstanding new repair products to further enhance our successful base- coat/clearcoat system. defect surface preparation repair final result mankiewicz gebr. & co. (gmbh & co. kg) · georg-wilhelm-straße 189 · 21107 hamburg, germany tel +49 (40) 751030 · fax +49 (40) 75103355 · email@example.com · www.mankiewicz.com
15.3.2copyrightedmankiewiczgebr.&co.(gmbh&co.kg)2015 copyright & credits publisher mankiewicz gebr. & co. (gmbh & co. kg) georg-wilhelm-straße 189 21107 hamburg, germany tel. +49 (40) 751030 · fax +49 (40) 75103355 www.mankiewicz.com editorial chief editor a. ossenkopf editor, chief writer k. matz graphics & layout: s. goercke contributors qantas, klm, westjet, iberia, dhl, etihad, easyjet production beisner druck gmbh & co. kg, buchholz, germany we wish to thank all authors for their contribution and creative support! if you have any questions, ideas or suggestions please feel free to contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org